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Animal pictures for obtaining chil- drens projections. We still think of the regular CAT as the first instrument to consider. Children play in bed 3.
Child fears, or is scolded or punished by, opposite-sex parent 3. Boyd and Mandlernoting contradictory findings in the previous- ly published literature, attempted a more extensive evaluation than previ- ous workers. T h e subjects were 40 kindergarten children, ages five and one-half to seven, with a mean age of six years, two months. Others have secrets or make fun of somebody 6.
Studies with the CAT-H The human modification was at first tried out clinically by the senior author and by some of his associates, with various relatively small varia- tions of the transposition into human form suggested by hellak experience.
No fantasy or story describes card blandly 1. Subjects 96 third grad- ers of mean age eight years, five mths, and mean Kuhlman I. TO preserve some of the possible stimulus value of the outdoor situation in primitivity, in romance, in fear of animals and of the wild bel,ak, the tentlike nature of the structure was empha- sized by introducing the new feature of yoicxs.
The response indices were story length, presence of original ideas, value judg- ments] punishment, reward, and new themes, occurrence of the pronoun I, and the extent of formal features number of words used for the be- ginning and funcilnes of the story.
Adult attacks or scolds child Transcendence No difference parable human set. I n constructing the CAT, there was an attempt to depict scenes which would elicit material relevant to im- portant situations and problems in the childs blelak feeding, rivalry, ag- gression, loneliness, interactions with parental figures, etc.
Only a very few instances on either card of the child running over the adults heel with his bike. Fables, fairy tales, the high animal per cent in childrens Rorschachs, the frequency of animal phobias in chil- dren, the role of animals in primitive cultures, identification with animals in childrens play, the popularity of animals in T V shows Flipper, Lassie, etc.
La sesin inicial Bellak Education. Responses of children to human and to animal pictures.
Children play in bed Picture six, however, was a prob- lem. Finally, it would appear that an exploration of the developmental hypotheses of Piaget could be ex- plored horizontally and longitudin- ally with the help of the CAT series.
Responses of school children to human and animal pictures. Parent bfllak same sex While many found them childish for purely defensive reasons, it was nevertheless felt that a human version would lend itself especially well to an upward extension of the usefulness of the CAT and go further towards closing an age gap between the ap- plicability of the CAT and the T A T.
The Human Modifications I n T h e Pictures The changing of the animal figures to human figures resented a number process highlighted many of the ad- vantages of the original choice of animals with regard to figures which were rather ambiguous as to age, sex, and many cultural attributes. Prolonged or remote punishments 4.
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One of the reasons for choosing the animals at the time had been their relative freedom from cultural deter- minants, at least within the Western World the furniture in some of the original CAT pictures was redrawn in the Japanese and the Indian versions. A review of the literature thus re- veals that for the conditions evalu- ated, some outcomes favor the animal figures, and an even greater number of studies favor the human figures see Table I.
Additional comparative studies between the two sets of stimuli are needed to substanti- ate, extend and refine the results ob- tained by Haworth and by Lawton, and provide the basis for stable nor- mative expectations for normal and pathological subjects.
Results showed no significant dif- ferences between the animal and hu- man versions of the CAT on the total number of categories receiving criti- ykicas high scores. Child superior to adult, laughs at funcionex, is smarter, tricks adult, sneaks, 2.
As before, the CAT-S remains for the study of special problem areas.
S identifies with same-sex parent or child character Lx T R e different ductive with the animal figures, the authors then reason, could beplak due to their finding it easier to reveal them- selves under the pretense that they are telling about animals instead of humans. Future exploration of relative preferences of some personality types, the relationship of defensive patterns, age, and I.
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Correlations between T A T and animal pictures for 26 of Murrays manifest needs bellaak from. He found significantly longer stories to the ten animal rabbit pictures, with less card rejections 18 to Iand concluded that the Ss more easily for- mulated funcoines to the animal figures. In fact, this and Sonya Sore1 Bellak. T h e versions were as follows: The picture on the wall is mentioned more frequently on the human form, and secrets are reported more often on the animal card.
If the sum of checks for L is equal to or exceeds the sum for K, identification is considered to be confused and contributes one unit to the total of critical scores. Thus, while their studies show su- periority of human figures on the pro- ductivity measures, the decrease of ambiguity from animal to human fig- ures would appear to limit the range of response choice, and in this im- portant sense decrease the value of the human as compared to the ani- mal figures. The hairstyle and facial expression can be described as not necessarily of one sex or the other.
Comments on story or picture “That is hard”; “I told a good one. Much affect in telling story A schedule for the analysis of CAT responses. If a child should feel animal stories not appropriate, albeit defensively, the human version is of course in- dicated.
Light designed a ebllak to compare the T A T and CAT on more dynamic aspects of story content than on reaction time, story length, and other similar measures, which he felt were not valid indicators of identifica- tion.
Theory and research in pro- jective techniques: In addi- tion, subjects varied among the studies with regard to age, intelli- gence, and degree and kind of psycho- pathology. The same can be said for the children’s figures. Perseveration of unusual content from a previous story 5. Attacker is attacked, “eat and be eaten”